A woman of reproductive age who is unable to conceive after having regular unprotected sex. Infertility can also refer to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception, or to a female who cannot carry a pregnancy to full term or until she gives birth. In Creation, the patient records suggest the major causes of infertility in woman are basically of three types: physical (damaged fallopian tubes), hormonal (as in irregular cycles) or simply age related.
Infertility related to fallopian tubes
Blocked fallopian tubes are the main cause of infertility in women. If egg and sperm do not meet then one cannot get pregnant without fertility treatment. Thus it increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy where the fertilized egg implants in the tube rather than in the Uterus.
Common causes of fallopian tube damage that may lead to an ectopic pregnancy include:
Smoking : women who smoke or who used to smoke have higher rates of ectopic pregnancy. Smoking is thought to damage the fallopian tubes’ ability to move the fertilized egg toward the uterus.
Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) : such as from Chlamydia or gonorrhea infection can create scar tissue in the fallopian tubes. Problems can be detected by ultrasound and laparoscopy which will confirm the extent of damage or weather the surgery or IVF is the best treatment. The good news is that most women are helped by fertility treatment.
Hormonal problems : Some women who suffer from irregular periods or no menstrual periods, painful periods have problem with Ovulation. This is frequently associated with a condition known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which is often resolved by weight loss and medication. Women with PCOS usually have several cysts on the ovaries and high levels of (male) androgen hormones. Whether for infertility or not, PCOS requires treatment because of its close links with diabetes and other risks of heart disease. In some rare cases women do not ovulate because of a premature menopause; for them egg donation is the only effective treatment.
Infertility due to age: Female fertility declines with age, such that women over 35 are much less fertile and more prone to miscarriage than younger women. One certain explanation is that the genetic and chromosome make-up of eggs and embryos deteriorates with age. This is most clearly illustrated in the increasing risk of Down’s syndrome seen in older mothers.
Down’s syndrome is genetic disorder or abnormality caused by the presence of all or part of the third copy of chromosomes. . In other cases chromosomal defects may prevent the embryo from implanting in the uterus (whether in natural or assisted) conception, and be the cause of miscarriage. There is a slow decline in pregnancy rates in the early 30's.
The decline is more substantial in the late 30's and early 40's.
Very few women over 44 are still fertile.
Miscarriage rates also increase as the mother ages.